On the top of the town of Ohrid, as a crown the Samuel's Fortress can be seen, the Fortress which has seen twenty-five centuries go by. In the course of the centuries the fortress not only changed many masters, but suffered extensive damage and was rebuilt and expanded on numerous occasions. After moving his capital from Prespa to Ohrid, Emperor (Tsar) Samuel reconstructed the citadel and the walls.
Samuel's Fortress, which surmounts Ohrid Hill and commands a superb view of the whole lake, is one of the largest medieval fortifications preserved on Macedonian soil. Massive walls and towers shielded it on all sides except that facing the lake. In the late 18th century, Jeladin-bey built a caravansary (Gorni Saraj) there, but no visible traces of it remain. In the course of centuries, the settlement developed below the citadel, surrounded by walls and entered through the town gates.
Not far form Samuel's Fortress is the Upper Gate (Gorna Porta) which has suffered numerous alternations in the course of time and which until 1912, was regularly closed at night and opened in the morning. Near the Upper Gate, the remains of a road from a Lichnidos period (old name of Ohrid) have been unearthed. This road used to lead to the classical theater which could seat some 5000 spectators, and the remains of which are on a hill side below Samuel's Fortress.